Warburg died in , and in the s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the s. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual.
One of the best-known psychoanalytic scholars is Laurie Schneider Adams, who wrote a popular textbook, Art Across Time , and a book Art and Psychoanalysis. For unknown purposes, Freud originally published the article anonymously. Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist , an influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology.
His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype , the collective unconscious , and his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic. His ideas were particularly popular among American Abstract expressionists in the s and s. Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm.
His work not only triggered analytical work by art historians, but it became an integral part of art-making. Jackson Pollock , for example, famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr. The legacy of psychoanalysis in art history has been profound, and extends beyond Freud and Jung.
The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock, for example, draws upon psychoanalysis both in her reading into contemporary art and in her rereading of modernist art. During the midth century, art historians embraced social history by using critical approaches. The goal was to show how art interacts with power structures in society. One critical approach that art historians [ who?
Marxist art history attempted to show how art was tied to specific classes, how images contain information about the economy, and how images can make the status quo seem natural ideology. Perhaps the best-known Marxist was Clement Greenberg , who came to prominence during the late s with his essay " Avant-Garde and Kitsch ".
Greenberg further claimed that avant-garde and Modernist art was a means to resist the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda. Greenberg later [ when? Meyer Schapiro is one of the best-remembered Marxist art historians of the midth century. Although he wrote about numerous time periods and themes in art, he is best remembered for his commentary on sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance , at which time he saw evidence of capitalism emerging and feudalism declining.
He attempted to show how class consciousness was reflected in major art periods. The book was controversial when published during the s since it makes generalizations about entire eras, a strategy now called " vulgar Marxism ". Werckmeister, David Kunzle, Theodor W. Adorno, and Max Horkheimer. Clark was the first art historian writing from a Marxist perspective to abandon vulgar Marxism.
These books focused closely on the political and economic climates in which the art was created. In her pioneering essay, Nochlin applies a feminist critical framework to show systematic exclusion of women from art training, arguing that exclusion from practicing art as well as the canonical history of art was the consequence of cultural conditions which curtailed and restricted women from art producing fields.
Griselda Pollock is another prominent feminist art historian, whose use of psychoanalytic theory is described above. While feminist art history can focus on any time period and location, much attention has been given to the Modern era. Some of this scholarship centers on the feminist art movement , which referred specifically to the experience of women.
Two pioneers of the field are Mary Garrard and Norma Broude. Their anthologies Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany , The Expanding Discourse: Feminist Art History After Postmodernism are substantial efforts to bring feminist perspectives into the discourse of art history.
The pair also co-founded the Feminist Art History Conference. As opposed to iconography which seeks to identify meaning, semiotics is concerned with how meaning is created. In any particular work of art, an interpretation depends on the identification of denoted meaning —the recognition of a visual sign, and the connoted meaning —the instant cultural associations that come with recognition.
The main concern of the semiotic art historian is to come up with ways to navigate and interpret connoted meaning. Semiotic art history seeks to uncover the codified meaning or meanings in an aesthetic object by examining its connectedness to a collective consciousness. Schapiro combined this method with the work of Charles Sanders Peirce whose object, sign, and interpretant provided a structure for his approach. By seeing the Mona Lisa , for example, as something beyond its materiality is to identify it as a sign.
It is then recognized as referring to an object outside of itself, a woman, or Mona Lisa. The image does not seem to denote religious meaning and can therefore be assumed to be a portrait.
This interpretation leads to a chain of possible interpretations: What significance did she have to him? Or, maybe she is an icon for all of womankind. The artist is supplanted by the viewer as the purveyor of meaning, even to the extent that an interpretation is still valid regardless of whether the creator had intended it. Mieke Bal argued similarly that meaning does not even exist until the image is observed by the viewer. It is only after acknowledging this that meaning can become opened up to other possibilities such as feminism or psychoanalysis.
Aspects of the subject which have come to the fore in recent decades include interest in the patronage and consumption of art, including the economics of the art market, the role of collectors, the intentions and aspirations of those commissioning works, and the reactions of contemporary and later viewers and owners.
Museum studies , including the history of museum collecting and display, is now a specialized field of study, as is the history of collecting. Scientific advances have made possible much more accurate investigation of the materials and techniques used to create works, especially infra-red and x-ray photographic techniques which have allowed many underdrawings of paintings to be seen again.
Proper analysis of pigments used in paint is now possible, which has upset many attributions. Dendrochronology for panel paintings and radio-carbon dating for old objects in organic materials have allowed scientific methods of dating objects to confirm or upset dates derived from stylistic analysis or documentary evidence. The development of good colour photography, now held digitally and available on the internet or by other means, has transformed the study of many types of art, especially those covering objects existing in large numbers which are widely dispersed among collections, such as illuminated manuscripts and Persian miniatures , and many types of archaeological artworks.
Concurrent to those technological advances, art historians have shown increasing interest in new theoretical approaches to the nature of artworks as objects. Thing theory , actor—network theory , and object-oriented ontology have played an increasing role in art historical literature. The making of art, the academic history of art, and the history of art museums are closely intertwined with the rise of nationalism.
Most art historians working today identify their specialty as the art of a particular culture and time period, and often such cultures are also nations. For example, someone might specialize in the 19th-century German or contemporary Chinese art history. A focus on nationhood has deep roots in the discipline.
Many of the largest and most well-funded art museums of the world, such as the Louvre , the Victoria and Albert Museum , and the National Gallery of Art in Washington are state-owned. The National Gallery of Art thus showcases art made in the United States , but also owns objects from across the world.
The field of Art History is traditionally divided into specializations or concentrations based on eras and regions, with further sub-division based on media. Thus, someone might specialize in "19th-century German architecture " or in "16th-century Tuscan sculpture.
In some cases, these specializations may be closely allied as Greece and Rome, for example , while in others such alliances are far less natural Indian art versus Korean art, for example. Non-Western art is a relative newcomer to the Art Historical canon. Recent revisions of the semantic division between art and artifact have recast objects created in non-Western cultures in more aesthetic terms.
Relative to those studying Ancient Rome or the Italian Renaissance , scholars specializing in Africa, the Ancient Americas and Asia are a growing minority. Similar organizations exist in other parts of the world, as well as for specializations, such as architectural history and Renaissance art history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the academic discipline of art history.
For an overview of the history of art worldwide, see History of art. For other uses, see Art history disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Vienna School of Art History. WordNet Search - 3. The Essential Gombrich , p. Art History is the study of the development of different styles within the art world.
Art history is important because when all is said and done, nobody remembers much about a civilization or a period of history except for its art, designs, and architecture!
You will never meet an Athenian who lived during the golden age of Greece, but you can read about them and see a play or sculpture, or walk around the Parthenon. Artistic creation in any form, and its celebration, remembrance, and preservation, is the way we remember and learn from great people and great civilizations.
Not if they spend all day on Facebook or likes Twinkies or admire Steve Jobs. There is the good stuff we remember and then there is all the meaningless stuff that is forgotten.
Great people learn and remember the good stuff. Also known as history. Yes, there is a lot of actual bad stuff along the way but, this ebb and flow is our collective history we all share. Something has gone wrong. In the meantime, please return home and try your request again. Your proposal was successfully submitted.
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The Art History AP course is designed to allow students to examine major forms of artistic expression relevant to a variety of cultures evident in wide variety of periods from present times into the past.
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Like any creative field, art history has its own language. While this can be overwhelming, a handy glossary of art terms can make analyzing a work of art a lot less intimidating. Whether you're familiar with the field or new to Art History , this list of terms will help you a master of art analysis. Free AP Art History resources organized by general topics. Each concept includes free example questions with detailed solutions.